Tuesday , 5 July 2022

Nigerian aviation will compete with Europe within four years if…Captain Mshelia

Captain Ibrahim Khadifir Mshelia
Capt. Ibrahim Kadafir Mshelia, a 49 years old airline pilot and pilot trainer with over 30 years of active aviation experience, obtained in Nigeria, Brazil, United States of America, France, UK and Ghana.  Having accumulated approximately 11,295 flight hours till date, Mshelia has attended several leading aviation training schools around the world including Embraer Training School, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Pegasus Flight Centre, Meacham Field’s Airport, Dallas-Fortworth, Texas, USA; Flight Safety International, at several locations including Marrietta Georgia, USA; Le–Bourget, Paris, France; Wichita Kansas; and Ag Flight Inc., Bainbridge, Georgia, USA; among others and is also  the Chief Executive Officer of Africa Contracts & Equipment Limited, an aviation consulting and aircraft leasing company based in Abuja, in Nigeria and he is also the Chief Executive Officer of Mish Aviation Services Limited, the operator of Mish Aviation Flight Training School in Accra, Ghana, the first private pilot training school in West Africa.. In this interview with ANTHONY OMOH, he lends some experience. Excerpts
What do you think of Federal Government’s proposal on the 2013 budget, that aircraft and their spares would attract zero tariffs on importation?
This is a welcome development to the industry; I am so overwhelmed with happiness that this is finally happening in the Aviation industry.  Airlines have cried for this for a long time now.  It is only that such great news is not being celebrated in the manner it deserves. The President and Ministry of Aviation have done well and I am personally highly impressed with this. Zero duty will definitely assist operators in no small measures and I think the operators and stake holders are encouraged to come out to praise this laudable government gesture. Government is run by people and praise has its reward. I have seen the usual fashion in which the aviation stake holders deploy in condemning whatever policy that is passed or perceived to be in the making even before it is pronounced. They must now reciprocate it, otherwise it will speak volumes of operators in the negative and confirm to the skeptics that operators only cry foul about these things and fake bottle necks by blaming government in order to exploit the travelling public, which is not true. l also encourage government  not to stop at this but complete the remaining by reviewing all past recommendations and fully implement them in addition to this highly commendable move, for example; the tariffs on office accommodation, constant availability of Jet A1( locally referred as Aviation Fuel) and pricing etc.  I believe if government can be magnanimous to do these, then government can also begin to demand certain respite in return; such as reduced air fares for the general travelling public in addition to quality service. This is the essence, give and take. The essence is to improve the economy generally and not just to create enabling environment for a few. Government has responsibility over everybody.  This will ensure that the general public and service provider strike a balance. Nigeria’s founding fathers and leaders have worked hard to put in place policies that will enhance our corporate existence as a nation and one people. The problem we have always had in this country, especially Aviation where I belong, is that so many opportunists in the systems who were trusted by government do not see beyond themselves, they continue to misinform government to formulate strangulating policies that did not exist when they started, otherwise even they themselves wouldn’t have made to where they are today. It’s always about them; it’s them first, the second and them third. They go to any extent to ensure they remain relevant even when they are not in reality. It’s a pity, but I believe with these types of moves by Government, things should get better soon. Above all, I like the style of the current administration, wide consultations and thorough review before taking decisions, this is the ideal thing and it will eventually save the country and expose the truth.
Managing directors / chief executives of airlines that have always said that this was an area federal government could help them from have not come out to show support for this initiative, or do you think they are not aware of the benefits?
As I said earlier, it’s equally surprising to me if they have not.  But the time to really address this is not now, perhaps they are not sure it’s true or it will happen since it is in 2013 budget. But all the same, to praise hurts no one and I would encourage all to hail this with the loudest voice. Please correct me and I also stand to be corrected. I have noticed for some time now that only a few people appear to be the aviation voices in Nigeria, there are very serious and active investors out there who should speak but do not for whatever reason. There is a saying my Dad used a lot those days when he advised me about what to expect in life. He said; a man, who is known not to like development of others, or oppose everything others do in a hurry without weighing things, will one day even oppose a good gesture coming to him. He also added that; those who often do not apply the sense of reasoning when expected, lack the ability to notice anything at all, unless it has them in forefront as beneficiaries. These are all natural weakness and need to pray for them but must isolate them to allow for public peace and comfort. I can’t stop talking about this news of the 100% duty waiver granted to the aviation sector operators in Nigeria on aircraft and part. We, as stakeholders should mark the commencement date as a special day in the history of Aviation in Nigeria. I am personally very proud of this decision taken by the Federal Government and want to thank the President, National Assembly, the Aviation Ministry management, especially the Hon Minister and her permanent secretary for carrying this struggle to this sweet conclusion. On a lighter note, I was discussing aviation generally with a couple of friends here Ghana. I proudly mentioned that we now also have 100% duty and tax waivers on aircraft, parts and accessories in my country, and nothing has made me happier lately and it called for celebration and so, I took them to lunch. While we were having lunch, one of them asked me; what is the name of the Aviation Minister?  I answered; Princess Stella Oduah. It is a woman? I said yes!  Believe it or not, her next in command is also a woman. They were very impressed and proud of our women.  We thank God!!
How would you advise government to go about this 100% tariff waiver?
Now, before these are implemented; I urge the government to clear possible ambiguity by setting up a committee of experts to seat down with the relevant agencies and the Nigerian Customs to properly identify what is an aircraft, its parts and the accessories that will enjoy these waivers to check abuse. Knowing ourselves, some people will import washing machine meant for the guest house of an airline and call it aircraft accessories or parts. There are very many accessories too that could be confusing Customs officers but actually aircraft operation and maintenance related; like the ultra sound cleaning machines, boroscope machines, propeller balancing machine and Ramp Testers and the list can go on and on. In choosing who these experts are, we must also be careful not to assume every pilot or engineer or air traffic controllers are experts. The experts we should look for in this case should first be people not known to be involved in any fraudulent activities (be upright people)must be highly educated in the field and must have operated, managed or been engaged in the day to day running of aircraft operation and maintenance. They will be hands on with what are genuinely parts or accessories.
What can you say about the current remodelling of which the Minister has come out to say some of the airports will be ready for use by Christmas?
I am happy that for the first time, 11 out of the 22 main government airports are getting a face lift. I am however very disappointed that all we hear about this are negative remarks rather than commendations, I have even read rude comments/insults on the government and the officers in charge. I was in Nigeria recently and travelled through four of the 11 airports being remodelled; I was very impressed, all the four I saw are actually near commissioning in such a short time. The speed at which they completed these jobs is amazing for a government contract. Look at the GAT, structure, beauty and speed all combined. I pray that those who have been castigating government on the remodelling will sum up courage and leave the comfort of their homes and go around and see for themselves. Not only that, they should also be courageous to shame the devil and speak the truth. What hurts most is that the negative comments are more from those of us so called professionals while the ordinary travelling public keep singing praises, what a shameful irony! Over 50 years of aviation in Nigeria and over 30 years of my knowledge of some of these airports, nothing like this has happened before and with such quality and speed. Let the truth be told so our children can learn good values from us because they are listening and watching. This is the best effort I have seen in recent times on infrastructure since the last three decades of my involvement in the sector and rising through the professional steps from being first a student Pilot to commercial Pilot, Airline Transport Pilot, Certified Flight Instructor, Designate Pilot Examiner, held all management positions a pilot will hold to an Airline Operator/Airline Proprietor as well as now being the proprietor of the first Private Aviation Training School in the sub region and sub-Saharan Africa offering training to candidates from scratch to full commercial pilots. I applaud the government this time around.  Nigerians should not mind the skeptics crying foul all over the place, government is on the right track this time and well-meaning Nigerians back home are encouraged to support the current Aviation Minister particularly for these bold moves and disregard all these petty attacks on her personality. I am seeing similar efforts here in Ghana on the apron reconstruction that is even causing serious delays to all domestic and regional airlines like Arik, Aero, Asky etc. including, major international carriers like Lufthansa, British Airways , Continental,  Delta, KLM, Emirates , Ethiopian, South African, Kenyan you name it! This has also been on for well over a year and still ongoing. Yet, I have not heard a single noise other than praises to the Ghanaian government, especially to the Ghana Airports Company CEO, Mrs Doreen Fianko and the Director General of the Ghana Civil Aviation Air Commodore Kwame Mamphey (Rtd) for a good job at coordination. The future is what everyone is looking at and so we are all taking the pains now to gain later. I therefore say I encourage our people to learn from that, because our people know the truth is that a lot is happening but we are just ignorantly being skeptics or mischievously being so.
Recently unions in the industry held a press conference where they rained brimstone and fire on the minister over automation and sundry, what is your take on this?
I was so sad to read the press conference attributed to some unions in the aviation sector. The press release was so unusual and the use of certain words on the Hon Minister of Aviation Princess Stella Oduah was uncalled for and lacked maturity in presentation. It’s rather unfortunate that this happened and I would expect the leadership of these unions who were not present at the press conference to make a statement rejoinder on some of the languages used. We have to respect authority no matter what.  I would even encourage apologies to the Minister for the use of inappropriate words on her. Union and Management are supposed to be partners who could disagree from time to time but this should not be reduced to personal attacks on one another. Freedom is good, but freedom does not replace rights of others, rather freedom and rights are meant to blend and be part of each other. I am not qualified to teach ethics, but common sense dictates knowledge in some cases. So everyone’s right must be respected regardless. It’s wise also to always crosscheck and ascertain issues before taking a position, especially if one is not sure of facts. We should be cautious not to jump into conclusions till we have facts and also avoid being prosecutors and judges at the same time.  Going to press at free will is the right of everybody wishing to do so. But I strongly advise that we exercise caution on what we take to the press. Certain official information, even when true, sending it to the press as if advertising products, has very damaging effects on all Nigerians in the end. It has adverse effect on the younger generation and capable of destroying our country’s image in the international community most especially if they turn out to be false. I believe that the Union could still change their approach and still gain same relevance. The Union should make haste and find a better way to work with the Government so that the much desired peace could reign and current development efforts would become more rapid for the benefit of the travelling public and working stake holders. Dialogue is not weakness, in fact, when a man is known to be good at dialogue in every difficult situation, the wrath of his anger is feared most. If we are complaining daily of lack of peace due to the current security challenges in the country, then we should think deeper and act in a manner that will save our industry and not destroy it.  We have so many professional bodies and unions in this country and I am sure I have not seen anything like this. Aviation is for smart gentlemen and women. People admire us for the fact that we have a unique profession, I therefore think we should set good example. I urge my senior colleagues to add their voices and call on the Unions to apply more wisdom in the future. They should be mindful of advice from miscreants who may want to mislead them wittingly for their personal gains both from within and outside. They should visit the press often but not to attack themselves or others, we know each other up to our offices and homes, so let’s be the gentlemen and women that we are and discuss always no matter the issues. Our going to press should be limited to sending of safety messages, operational issues, improvements, adverts etc., not aim to settle internal rift because it will not settle it. Press is like a public courtroom where the jury will be the members of the public but this time no verdict will emerge. I am confident that my colleagues both younger and older in the unions would take my appeal very seriously and change their ways. In some countries I know, the DG of the CAA is a Patron of the very union of the workers under him. Also some airline MD’s are equally Patrons of the same union of workers that provide services to the airlines. Can you imagine the respect and peace that can come out of that arrangement? If we copy that, I believe it will go a long way to create the much needed peace to enhance development of our sector. If in decades we did not see such development at such a massive scale in our sector till now, I feel we should change our ways and allow these people to continue fixing the industry for us.
Part of the ruckus by the unions was due to restructuring in agencies and parastatals, do you think there is a problem with the restructuring? Is it ethicized as the unions would have us believe?
In Nigeria or anywhere at all, whenever there is a change in leadership, certain changes take place. Not only in Aviation alone does this happen. I have seen and known that every Minister carries out restructuring in every Ministry in this country anytime there is a change. If this is guilt as you say the unions are portraying, then even the President is also guilty of same offence because he also changed so many things when he became President. As a matter of fact, even when he was completing another man’s term, he also made changes.  I do not see what the Aviation Ministry has done as strange, rather it is the norm and these changes may not suite all but I believe they are covered by law. If it so, then it is their entitlement to do so. Whether it is lopsided or ethicized, I don’t know. I have not seen the read the list. Besides a few directors in NCAA, I usually don’t even know the remaining directors and the directors in any other parastatals besides these few and the NCAA CEO as well as the CEO of the other agencies. Even NCAA, I normally only know that of 4 Directorates which concern me. These are; DATR because of Air Carrier License which I act as consultant to assist people obtain from time to time, Airworthiness for aircraft maintenance and certifications, Flight Operations and Training because I still fly and they are in charge of AOC and training and then Director of Licensing who renews my Pilot license periodically that’s all. But I was involved in an event recently and I got to know more of the other directorates and below is the structure and names of the personnel as at say a month or so ago.
Director General: Dr Harold Demuren (South West), Director of Airworthiness Standards: Engineer Patrick Ekunwe (South South), Director of Air Transport Regulations: Mrs. Anthonia Vincent (South west), Director of Consumer Protection: Mrs Fatimah Garbati (North Central), Director of Operations and Training: Captain Olumide Lawal (South West), Director of Licensing:           Mr. E. Ogunbambi (South West), Director of Finance:     Mr. Johnson Adekola (South West), Director of Aerodromes: Engr Haruna (North West). I don’t know what it is now after this change that is causing the rancour you are asking me, because I have not seen the list. But we have lived with the above structure for a while now. As a journalist and you say the Unions are complaining of it is ethicized. I am sure they are referring to Federal Character act of the Fed Rep of Nigeria? Correct?…Does this reflect  Federal Character? Did you hear any rancour over this before the change?  I have really never paid attention to this in the past but if you ask me now, it is not. I only hope the new list will balance the thing or even compensate regions that have been short changed. The bottom line for me really, if someone can do the job right without fear or favour, that’s the man!! If we can detribalize our thinking and behaviour, what will Federal character matter even if lopsided in aviation? One thing I can tell you for sure is that I know there are well trained and experienced aviators from all the 6 geo zones.  The Union as a matter of fact in my opinion should concern over this, but if they did not complain about this current status above. I suggest they apply common wisdom in dealing with this matter.
There was also a lot of cry over the automation of certain parastatals in the industry, what is your take on automation generally in the aviation industry and how do you think it should be done?
Automation generally is like introducing transparency and how can transparency be a bad thing? The world has changed now that automation is key to the development and sustenance of development in any nation. From what I have read of this automation, it is planned for revenue collection. If we look at it from a nationalistic point of view, automation for revenue collection is a way to go and definitely the best way out. If you automate the revenue collection, you eliminate a lot of leakages and not only on the receiving alone but also with safe keeping and disbursement. It should be a welcome idea to all well-meaning Nigerians especially those of us in the aviation sector. How can transparency become a bad thing when we know that it’s a major killer of our country? I am actually now getting confused as to what is going on. If the same group is accusing the government officials of stealing and the same people have now said we want to automate the source of revenue, then bravo!! Why the cry? I do understand what automation is and does to a system. I am even at the final stages of automating the administration of my flying school. If I show you the model, you will be shocked at what it does.  However, with automation, one thing comes to mind and that is the loss of job for the manual workers where automation will take over. Of course nobody wants to lose his/her job ever, especially in these hard times.  But, I am sure the government that is shouting Job creation will not automate and throw away people on the streets unjustly.  I believe they will make plans for the staff that will be affected. Why the brouhaha? The Union should not forget that when you automate, facts they do not even know may emerge and be witting they may be used to fight it without their knowing.  The Unions should be very careful that people do not use them to stall the process in order to cover issues that may arise. So I appeal to my colleagues, both young and old to allow the automation exercise. If true they are fighting justice and accountability, what else can guarantee that in modern times? Automation of course! They may be shocked at the amount of money that will be added to the current revenue profile with same operation if the agencies are automated; no more fake receipts, cooking of balance books will be history, you cannot pinch into the purse and return later uncaught if at all possible, the boss can check the account from anywhere, very firm control of money etc. So what is bad with that? Even the workers can easily monitor and tract financial activities. I find it hard to understand what the problems is with the planned automation insofar as I also heard that no worker will lose his or her job because of the automation. We are always quick to refer to international practices when referring to anything’s in Nigeria especially in Aviation, so why not this one?
Captain what kind of aircraft would you suggest to fly domestic operations in Nigeria, given that all the flights are 1.45 minutes and less in this country and why would you suggest that?
I am still celebrating the 100% waiver on aircraft, spares parts, operation and maintenance accessories that the federal government has granted operators in Nigeria, I did not expect these questions so soon. I would like to leave this for next time.
Sir, I want to insist that you respond to this if you do not mind because it is a very import issue in the industry.
Well, people in Nigeria have developed a set mentality when it comes to type of aircraft, size of aircraft and age of aircraft with some degree of ignorance. Unfortunately, we professionals failed to do anything over the years to create a change in this sad mentality. This is inappropriate forum to discuss the other side. It will take an extensive debate to convince people they have been leaving in fear for nothing, so let’s leave this for other times where we can have ample time to extensively debate this. How low in years can we go? Up to what Government wants because the newer, the more expensive, and the older the cheaper. So, with  let me tell you how the waiver may not be of much effect after all, Aircraft constitutes of airframe, engines, auxiliary power units and several life limited /rotable parts and consumable. Major consumable is the fuel and that is not affected by the waiver. Now, each aircraft is designed with a set maintenance procedure and part removal and replacements take place at certain times. The newer the aircraft the less change is required till the aircraft reaches certain circle or age. For example, a particular major component may require change after say 10,000 flight hours that aircraft is no more new and may not even be allowed into Nigeria.  If Government will create a leasing company or assist suitable operators to access new generation airplanes at single digit interest rate and conditionality as their counterparts in Europe and America, then there will be no government better than this one as far as aviation is concerned. With waivers and access to lease, Nigerian aviation will compete with Europe within four years if proper regulating and monitoring is enhanced.
There is a foreign carrier now doing domestic operations in Ghana, and from what I am privy to, they are doing well is that a good plan, in opening up the country’s domestic market to foreign carriers?
I have seen them and I hear more are even applying. but am not in the position to speak on this now, We have several domestic operators springing up, because it stake less than 6 months to process AOC in Ghana, if the intending operator is serious, he will get it in about 90 to 100 days. This is not to say that they have short cuts, No! It’s as thorough as anywhere else but their approach is what makes the difference, I believe. Also there is no ban on age for aircraft but I know of only a ban on eastern bloc aircraft. This facilitates things and has opened the market every well in recent past.
Do you think that this country needs a national carrier after what happened to the other and what do you think establishing a national carrier in Nigeria would achieve?
We needed a national carrier long ago. I am very happy to hear that the government is going ahead. God bless them. Please you journalists should organize debates on such issues and who has what it takes to convince people for or against should come there and stop writing their opinion in the papers. This is a serious issue that we should not leave to gossip or the newspapers. We are all ready and have reasons why we must have a Nigerian Airline. Government is cautious to use public funds because of certain laws/acts, I encourage a debate to change the act and let government have a national carrier why not? People keep forgetting that the reasons Nigeria airways collapsed was due to abuse and proper use of opportunity by public office holders then. Can they try it today? No way!!  So if a patient has been cured from a quarantine disease, why still keep him in quarantine? That problem I can tell you doesn’t exist and Government doesn’t have to own 100%. But can own a chunk, why not. When people see themselves in others, they find it different to accept certain facts. The other stake holders should be the technical partners. It will work. I think they can pull it through and I encourage starting without delay, wholesome, partnership or whatever, Nigerian flag needs to be on the tails of airplanes flying around the world please!
How do you think we can grow the aviation industry in Nigeria with regards airlines and service providers like FAAN?
The industry need genuine investors and well trains manpower. FAAN is already doing a wonderful job of remodelling the airports, they must not stop at the 11, and they should finish the remaining 11 and also build more airports and airstrips. Government should grant licenses for private airstrips and more concessions on land space and moratorium. All other sides of existing runways in all airports in the country currently are not linked with road to enable development of hangars. Government should build tarmacs on the other sides and create access roads; this will spring up development on its own. Other agencies should also braise up to the developmental challenge. NCAA in particular as police of the industry should be more vibrant and create a robust regulation that caters for small, medium and large operation. The current regulation is no doubt good but like a one way street and there is no way you can develop this way. 
Captain, how do you think we can move forward in aviation and meet up with the global community especially as you say things are looking up now?
I want to emphasize and encourage the present administration in the aviation sector and indeed future administrations to fashion out an aviation system that works for us. Often we have heard in people screaming ICAO this and ICAO that, or International this or International that, True, its most desirable to meet all international recommended best practices, but what they also fail to tell government is that these practices are recommendations and not sacrosanct laws. The ICAO recommendations are minimum standards. Yes, you can raise it and I personally recommend you do if you can afford it without starving your people of funds for food, healthcare and basic education and internal security etc. but you must not go below minimum standards as a member state (Country). However, ICAO has always emphasized on safety, and this is sacrosanct, then economic considerations of the state which is more like ability and affordability more or less and then political. While safety is sacrosanct, if you are financially weak state, or you have other more important issues, then you could juggle the rest. The understanding of these recommendations, applying them properly for the benefit of State while ensuring safety and security is what makes for expertise in Aviation.  For the benefit of doubt, Lets define the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and their role and or functions, in addition, who is ICAO? A lot has been said in the past and ICAO has been portrayed either ignorantly or with deceitful wit as if to say ICAO was some dreaded supreme government somewhere holding a big dagger to cut down heads of people who do not follow their recommendation to the letter. That is not true. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is the United Nations agency concerned with civil aviation. Who constitutes ICAO? Nigeria, Benin Republic, Ghana, Cote’DÍvoire , Liberia, United Kingdom, America, Canada, France , Germany, Gabon, Sudan etc. and all other signatory nations to the convention on International Civil Aviation, these are just examples and details can be found in the ICAO relevant documents. What is the function of ICAO?  Several functions related to air navigation (aircraft operations) but mainly to ensure safety and security of air navigation by all members’ states. Now, who is responsible for the implementation of the safety and security? Each Member State! Nigeria for instance, is responsible and the agency charged with that responsibility on behalf of the Nigerian State is the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority (NCAA) is responsible for implementing all ICAO recommended safety measures and local safety concerns. This is but just a basic overview and facts about what ICAO is and does. Nigeria and every member state have slot(s) of permanent representation at the ICAO general assembly H/Q based in Canada. Having said that, I hope we are more conversant and will not be misled into believing ICAO is a supreme Government over state Governments. In fact, even when the General assembly recommends a practice, a member state which is not financially able could do what they call ‘file for differences’. If implementation is difficult for a particular state at a specified time because of weak finances, you could file and be granted more time to comply. You can see how flexible it can be. When it is safety critical however, you will have no choice than to comply immediately. In which case, the state may wish to cut certain budgets to comply immediate. For example, certain recommendations could be more like luxury and therefore may not be priority and such they shelved for future consideration. A typical example of higher standard is the FAA category one. (CAT1). Federal Aviation Administration of the United States of America (FAA) which equivalent for Nigeria is the NCAA, the GCAA for Ghana or LCAA for Liberia etc. We have won FAA CAT 1 Status in Nigeria and we are one of the few Nations in Africa to be certified by FAA as CAT 1. Interestingly, America is a member of ICAO. ICAO also has similar rating of members. One who is not an aviation enthusiast would wonder why the double standards. You noticed I stressed the aviation enthusiast, because there are non-professional who know this already because they research and study and they are not aviation trained or professionals, very commendable. There are also those who are trained in one aspect of aviation or the other who just does their jobs right and do not care about the political issues of aviation, fair enough and no crime. Back to CAT 1. USA has set for its self very high safety standards that surpass the minimum ICAO standards of which they are members. They want higher safety standards in their airspace so they setup their standard. If you want to fly to their country with your aircraft registered in your country, then you must have a civil aviation that meets their safety standard. If you are not an FAA category 1 State and what to operate commercial flight to their country, you can and must hire or lease an aircraft from their country or any other country that holds their CAT 1 status. It is as simple as that in addition to having the Bilateral Air Service Agreement (BASA) signed between your country and theirs, and then you go through the remaining minor preoperational processes. If you have no interest in flying to the USA, then CAT1 is irrelevant, if you have interest and cannot afford to meet the requirements, no problem, just lease and use aircraft from an FAA CAT1 country, that’s how simple!!  In the process of the FAA CAT 1 certification, the FAA will inspect you and provide you with any possible GAPS if you do not qualify, you have to close the GAPs and then they will re – inspect you, if you are found okay, then you get it, otherwise, you don’t, but this is not to say you cannot fly to their country because you failed to pass, you still can, but provided you use a CAT 1 state registered aircraft, simple. So if you have GAPs, and you see that the cost of closing the GAPS is not what you can afford, then you make a choice. It’s now you weigh against your priority as a nation. They must be some nations out there who have done this and abandoned it due to the priority listing mentioned. I think I have read it recently in the news. In a layman’s language, it’s like your friend is throwing a party in an exclusive place which you need to buy and place a particular sticker to be allowed in only cars with that stickers will be allowed in. Once a car has the right sticker, the car and passengers can pass freely inside.  So either you buy the sticker for your car, or leave your car and borrow your friends car which has the sticker or go inside his car you still go into the party.  The whole thing is choice and affordability, if you like, opportunity cost as the economists will say.
Thank you


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